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A penalty kick (commonly known as a penalty
or a PK) is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is
allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing
team’s goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a
direct free kick is committed by a player in their own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which
is 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines. In practice, penalty kicks result in goals
more often than not, even against the best and most experienced goalkeepers. This means that penalty awards are game-changing
decisions and often decisive, particularly in low-scoring games. Similar kicks are made in a penalty shootout
in some tournaments to determine which team is victorious after a drawn match; these are
governed by slightly different rules.==Procedure==The ball is placed on the penalty mark, regardless
of where in the penalty area the foul occurred. The player taking the kick is to be identified
to the referee. Only the kicker and the defending team’s goalkeeper
are allowed to be within the penalty area; all other players must be within the field
of play but outside the penalty area, behind the penalty mark, and a minimum of 10 yards
(9.1 m) from the penalty mark (the penalty arc denotes 10 yards from the penalty mark). The goalkeeper must stand on the goal line
between the goal posts until the ball is kicked. Lateral movement is allowed, but the goalkeeper
is not permitted to come off the goal line by stepping or lunging forward until the ball
is in play. The assistant referee responsible for the
goal line where the penalty kick is being taken is positioned at the intersection of
the penalty area and goal line, and assists the referee in looking for infringements and/or
whether a goal is scored. When the referee is satisfied that the players
are properly positioned, they blow the whistle to indicate that the kicker may kick. The kicker may make feinting (deceptive or
distracting) moves during the run-up to the ball, but once the run-up is completed they
may no longer feint and must kick the ball. The ball must be stationary before the kick,
and it must be kicked forward. The ball is in play once it is kicked and
moves, and at that time other players may enter the penalty area. Once kicked, the kicker may not touch the
ball again until it has been touched by another player of either team or goes out of play
(including into the goal).==Infringements==
In case of an infringement of the laws of the game during a penalty kick, most commonly
entering the penalty area illegally, the referee must consider both whether the ball entered
the goal, and which team(s) committed the offence. The following infringements committed by the
kicking team result in an indirect free kick for the defending team, regardless of the
outcome of the kick: a teammate of the identified kicker kicks
the ball instead (the player who took the kick is cautioned)
kicker feints kicking the ball at the end of the run-up (the kicker is cautioned)
kick does not go forward kicker touches the ball a second time before
it touches another player (includes rebounds off the goal posts or crossbar)In the case
of a player repeatedly infringing the laws during the penalty kick, the referee may caution
the player for persistent infringement. Note that all offences that occur before kick
may be dealt with in this manner, regardless of the location of the offence. If the ball touches an outside agent (i.e.,
an object foreign to the playing field) as it moves forward from the kick, the kick is
retaken.==Tap penalty==
A two-man penalty, or “tap” penalty, occurs when the kicker, instead of shooting for goal,
taps the ball slightly forward so that a teammate can run on to it and shoot. If properly executed, it is a legal play since
the kicker is not required to shoot for goal and need only kick the ball forward. This strategy relies heavily on the element
of surprise, as it first requires the goalkeeper to believe the kicker will actually shoot,
then dive or move to one side in response. It then requires the goalkeeper to remain
out of position long enough for the kicker’s teammate to reach the ball before any defenders,
and for that teammate to place a shot on the undefended side of the goal. The first recorded tap penalty was taken by
Jimmy McIlroy and Danny Blanchflower of Northern Ireland against Portugal on 1 May 1957. Another was taken by Rik Coppens and André
Piters in the World Cup Qualifying match Belgium v Iceland on 5 June 1957. Another attempt was made by Mike Trebilcock
and John Newman, playing for Plymouth Argyle in 1964. Later on, Johan Cruyff tried the same with
his Ajax team-mate Jesper Olsen in 1982.Arsenal players Thierry Henry and Robert Pires failed
in an attempt at a similar penalty in 2005, during a Premier League match against Manchester
City at Highbury. Pires ran in to take the kick, attempted to
pass to the onrushing Henry, but miskicked and the ball hardly moved; as he had slightly
touched the ball, he could not touch it again, and City defender Sylvain Distin cleared the
ball before Henry could shoot.Lionel Messi tapped a penalty for Luis Suárez as Suárez
completed his hat-trick on 14 February 2016 against league opponents Celta de Vigo.==Saving tactics=====”Reading” the kicker===
Defending against a penalty kick is one of the most difficult tasks a goalkeeper can
face. Owing to the short distance between the penalty
spot and the goal, there is very little time to react to the shot. Because of this, the goalkeeper will usually
start his or her dive before the ball is actually struck. In effect, the goalkeeper must act on his
best prediction about where the shot will be aimed. Some goalkeepers decide which way they will
dive beforehand, thus giving themselves a good chance of diving in time. Others try to read the kicker’s motion pattern. On the other side, kickers often feign and
prefer a relatively slow shot in an attempt to foil the goalkeeper. The potentially most fruitful approach, shooting
high and centre, i.e., in the space that the goalkeeper will evacuate, also carries the
highest risk of shooting above the bar. As the shooter makes his approach to the ball,
the goalkeeper has only a fraction of a second to “read” the shooter’s motions and decide
where the ball will go. If their guess is correct, this may result
in a missed penalty. Helmuth Duckadam, Steaua București’s goalkeeper,
saved a record four consecutive penalties in the 1986 European Cup Final against Barcelona. He dived three times to the right and a fourth
time to his left to save all penalties taken, securing victory for his team.===Use of knowledge of kicker’s history===
A goalkeeper may also rely on knowledge of the shooter’s past behaviour to inform his
decision. An example of this would be by former Netherlands
national team goalkeeper Hans van Breukelen, who always had a box with cards with all the
information about the opponent’s penalty specialist. Ecuadorian goalkeeper Marcelo Elizager saving
a penalty from Carlos Tevez in a match between Ecuador and Argentina, revealed that he had
studied some penalty kicks from Tévez and suspected he was going to shoot to the goalkeeper’s
left side. Two other examples occurred during the 2006
FIFA World Cup: Portugal national team goalkeeper Ricardo
in a quarter-final match against England, where he saved three penalties out of four. The quarter-final match between Argentina
and Germany also came down to penalties, and German goalkeeper Jens Lehmann was seen looking
at a piece of paper kept in his sock before each Argentinian player would come forward
for a penalty kick. It is presumed that information on each kicker’s
“habits” were written on this paper. Lehmann saved two of the four penalties taken
and came close to saving a third.This approach may not always be successful; the player may
intentionally switch from his favoured spot after witnessing the goalkeeper obtaining
knowledge of his kicks. Most times, especially in amateur football,
the goalkeeper is often forced to guess. Game theoretic research shows that strikers
and goalies must randomize their strategies in precise ways to avoid having the opponent
take advantage of their predictability.===Distraction===
The goalkeeper also may try to distract the penalty taker, as the expectation is on the
penalty taker to succeed, hence more pressure on the penalty taker, making him more vulnerable
to mistakes. For example, in the 2008 UEFA Champions League
Final between Manchester United and Chelsea, United goalkeeper Edwin van der Sar pointed
to his left side when Nicolas Anelka stepped up to take a shot in the penalty shoot out. This was because all of Chelsea’s penalties
went to the left. Anelka’s shot instead went to Van der Sar’s
right, which was saved. Liverpool goalkeeper Bruce Grobbelaar used
a method of distracting the players called the “spaghetti legs” trick to help his club
defeat Roma to win the 1984 European Cup. This tactic was emulated in the 2005 UEFA
Champions League Final, which Liverpool also won, by Liverpool goalkeeper Jerzy Dudek,
helping his team defeat Milan. An illegal method of saving penalties is for
the goalkeeper to make a quick and short jump forward just before the penalty taker connects
with the ball. This not only shuts down the angle of the
shot, but also distracts the penalty taker. The method was used by Brazilian goalkeeper
Cláudio Taffarel. FIFA was less strict on the rule during that
time. In more recent times, FIFA has advised all
referees to strictly obey the rule book.Similarly, a goalkeeper may also attempt to delay a penalty
by cleaning his boots, asking the referee to see if the ball is placed properly and
other delaying tactics. This method builds more pressure on the penalty
taker, but the goalkeeper may risk punishments, most likely a yellow card. A goalkeeper can also try to distract the
taker by talking to them prior to the penalty being taken. Netherlands national team goalkeeper Tim Krul
used this technique during the penalty shootout in the quarter-final match of the 2014 FIFA
World Cup against Costa Rica. As the Costa Rican players were preparing
to take the kick, Krul told them that he ”knew where they were going to put their penalty”
in order to ”get in their heads”. This resulted in him saving two penalties
and the Netherlands winning the shootout 4-3. Under new IFAB rule changes, if the penalty
taker attempts to feint or dummy the opposing goalkeeper after completing the run-up to
the ball, the taker will be punished with a yellow card, and will not be allowed to
retake the kick.==Scoring statistics==
Even if the goalkeeper succeeds in blocking the shot, the ball may rebound back to the
penalty taker or one of his teammates for another shot, with the goalkeeper often in
a poor position to make a second save. This makes saving penalty kicks more difficult. This is not a concern in penalty shoot-outs,
where only a single shot is permitted. These factors would give one the impression
that penalty kicks are converted almost 100% of the time. Missed penalty kicks, however, are not uncommon:
for instance, of the 78 penalty kicks taken during the 2005–06 English Premier League
season, 57 resulted in a goal, thus almost 30% of the penalties were unsuccessful.A German
professor who has been studying penalty statistics in the German Bundesliga for 16 years found
76% of all the penalties during those 16 years went in, and 99% of the shots in the higher
half of the goal went in, although the higher half of the goal is a more difficult target
to aim at. During his career, Italian striker Roberto
Baggio had two occurrences where his shot hit the upper bar, bounced downwards, rebounded
off the keeper and passed the goal line for a goal.===Saving statistics===
Some goalkeepers have become well-known for their ability to save penalty kicks. One such goalkeeper is Brazilian goalkeeper
Diego Alves, who boasts a 49 percent save success rate. Other goalkeepers with high save rates include
Claudio Bravo, Kevin Trapp, Samir Handanovic, Gianluigi Buffon, Danijel Subasic, and Manuel
Neuer.==History=====Early proposals===
The original laws of the game, in 1863, had no punishments for infringements of the rules. In 1872, the indirect free kick was introduced
as a punishment for handball, and later for other offences. This indirect free-kick was thought to be
an inadequate remedy for a handball which prevented an otherwise-certain goal. As a result of this, in 1882 a law was introduced
to award a goal to a team prevented from scoring by an opponent’s handball. This law lasted only one season before being
abolished in 1883.===Introduction of the penalty-kick===The invention of the penalty kick is credited
to the goalkeeper and businessman William McCrum in 1890 in Milford, County Armagh,
Ireland.. The Irish Football Association presented the
idea to the International Football Association Board’s 1890 meeting, where it was deferred
until the next meeting in 1891.Two incidents in the 1890-1 season lent additional force
to the argument for the penalty kick. On 20 December 1890, in the Scottish Cup quarter-final
between East Stirlingshire and Heart of Midlothian Jimmy Adams fisted the ball out from under
the bar, and on14 February 1891, there was a blatant goal-line handball by a Notts County
player in the FA Cup quarter-final against Stoke City Finally after much debate, the International
Football Association Board approved the idea on 2 June 1891. The penalty-kick law ran: If any player shall
intentionally trip or hold an opposing player, or deliberately handle the ball, within twelve
yards from his own goal-line, the referee shall, on appeal, award the opposing side
a penalty kick, to be taken from any point twelve yards from the goal-line, under the
following conditions:— All players, with the exception of the player taking the penalty
kick and the opposing goalkeeper (who shall not advance more than six yards from the goal-line)
shall stand at least six yards behind the ball. The ball shall be in play when the kick is
taken, and a goal may be scored from the penalty kick. Some notable differences between this original
1891 law and today’s penalty-kick are listed below: It was awarded for an offence committed within
12 yards of the goal-line (the penalty area was not introduced until 1902). It could be taken from any point along a line
12 yards from the goal-line (the penalty spot was likewise not introduced until 1902). It was awarded only after an appeal. There was no restriction on dribbling. The ball could be kicked in any direction. The goal-keeper was allowed to advance up
to 6 yards from the goal-line.The world’s first penalty kick was awarded to Airdrieonians
in 1891 at Broomfield Park, and the first penalty kick in the Football League was awarded
to Wolverhampton Wanderers in their match against Accrington at Molineux Stadium on
14 September 1891. The penalty was taken and scored by “Billy”
Heath as Wolves went on to win the game 5–0.===Subsequent developments===In 1892, the player taking the penalty-kick
was forbidden to kick the ball again before the ball had touched another player. A provision was also added that “[i]f necessary,
time of play shall be extended to admit of the penalty kick being taken”.In 1896, the
ball was required to be kicked forward, and the requirement for an appeal was removed.In
1902, the penalty area was introduced with its current dimensions (a rectangle extending
18 yards from the goal-posts). The penalty spot was also introduced, 12 yards
from the goal. All other players were required to be outside
the penalty area.In 1905, the goal-keeper was required to remain on the goal-line.In
1923, all other players were required to be at least 10 yards from the penalty-spot (in
addition to being outside the penalty-area).In 1930, a footnote was appended to the laws,
stating that “the goal-keeper must not move his feet until the penalty kick has been taken”.In
1937, an arc (colloquially known as the “D”) was added to the pitch markings, to assist
in the enforcement of the 10-yard restriction. The goal-keeper was required to stand between
the goal-posts.In 1995, all other players were required to remain behind the penalty
spot. The Scottish Football Association claimed
that this new provision would “eliminate various problems which have arisen regarding the position
of players who stand in front of the penalty-mark at the taking of a penalty-kick as is presently
permitted”.In 1997, the goal-keeper was once again allowed to move the feet, and was also
required to face the kicker.The question of “feinting” during the run-up to a penalty
has occupied the International FA Board since 1982, when it decided that “if a player stops
in his run-up it is an offence for which he shall be cautioned (for ungentlemanly conduct)
by the referee”. However, in 1985 the same body reversed itself,
deciding that the “assumption that feigning was an offence” was “wrong”, and that it was
up to the Referee to decide whether any instance should be penalized as ungentlemanly conduct. From 2000 to 2006, documents produced by IFAB
specified that feinting during the run-up to a penalty-kick was permitted. In 2007, this guidance emphasized that “if
in the opinion of the referee the feinting is considered an act of unsporting behaviour,
the player shall be cautioned”. In 2010, because of concern over “an increasing
trend in players feinting a penalty kick to deceive the goalkeeper”, a proposal was adopted
to specify that while “feinting in the run-up to take a penalty kick to confuse opponents
is permitted as part of football”, “feinting to kick the ball once the player has completed
his run-up is considered an infringement of Law 14 and an act of unsporting behaviour
for which the player must be cautioned”.===Summary======Offences for which a penalty kick was
awarded===Since its introduction in 1891, a penalty
kick has been awarded for two broad categories of offences: handball
serious offences involving physical contactThe number of offences eligible for punishment
by a penalty-kick, small when initially introduced in 1891, expanded rapidly thereafter. This led to some confusion: for example, in
September 1891, a referee awarded a penalty kick against a goalkeeper who “[lost] his
temper and [kicked] an opponent”, even though under the 1891 laws this offence was punishable
only by an indirect free-kick.The table below shows the punishments specified by the laws
for offences involving handling the ball or physical contact, between 1890 and 1903: Since 1903, the offences for which a penalty
kick is awarded within the defending team’s penalty area have been identical to those
for which a direct free kick is awarded outside the defending team’s penalty area

David Frank