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Sicily | Wikipedia audio article


Sicily (Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja];
Sicilian: Sicilia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous region of Italy, in Southern
Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean
Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait
of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna,
the tallest active volcano in Europe, and one of the most active in the world, currently
3,329 m (10,922 ft) high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of human
activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician
and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian
Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the
5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths,
the Byzantine Empire, and the Emirate of Sicily. The Norman conquest of southern Italy led
to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, which was subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen,
the Capetian House of Anjou, Spain, and the House of Habsburg. It was finally unified under the House of
Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following
the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification,
and a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous
region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains
unapplied, especially financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have
been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee (50% Italian State, 50% Regione
Siciliana), since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially
with regard to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, and architecture. It is also home to important archaeological
and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Erice
and Selinunte.==Geography==Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning
it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian
mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide in the north, and about 16
km (9.9 mi) wide in the southern part. The northern and southern coasts are each
about 280 km (170 mi) long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around
180 km (110 mi); total coast length is estimated at 1,484 km (922 mi). The total area of the island is 25,711 km2
(9,927 sq mi), while the Autonomous Region of Sicily (which includes smaller surrounding
islands) has an area of 27,708 km2 (10,698 sq mi). The terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly
and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges
of Madonie, 2,000 m (6,600 ft), Nebrodi, 1,800 m (5,900 ft), and Peloritani, 1,300 m (4,300
ft), are an extension of the mainland Apennines. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern
coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains,
1,000 m (3,300 ft). The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts
were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined
since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have
some highly active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in
Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions. It currently stands 3,329 metres (10,922 ft)
high, though this varies with summit eruptions; the mountain is 21 m (69 ft) lower now than
it was in 1981. It is the highest mountain in Italy south
of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 (459 sq mi)
with a basal circumference of 140 km (87 mi). This makes it by far the largest of the three
active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest,
Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon
was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is widely regarded as a cultural
symbol and icon of Sicily. The Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea,
to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, and include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano, Vulcanello
and Lipari are also currently active, although the latter is usually dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater
volcano of Ferdinandea, which is part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in
1831. It is located between the coast of Agrigento
and the island of Pantelleria (which itself is a dormant volcano). The autonomous region also includes several
neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands, Pantelleria and Lampedusa.===Rivers===
The island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and
enter the sea at the south of the island. The Salso flows through parts of Enna and
Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the
province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, and the Simeto, which flows
into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the
Belice and Platani in the southwest.===Climate===Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate
with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with very changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts, especially the south-western,
the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters
but also, above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold,
with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres,
but stronger cold waves can easily carry it in the hills and even in coastal cities, especially
on the northern coast of the island. The interior mountains, especially Nebrodi,
Madonie and Etna, enjoy a fully mountain climate, with heavy snowfalls during winter. The summit of Mount Etna is usually snow capped
from October to May. On the other hand, especially in the summer
it is not unusual that there is the sirocco, the wind from the Sahara. Rainfall is scarce, and water proves deficient
in some provinces where water crisis can happen sometimes. According to the Regional Agency for Waste
and Water, on 10 August 1999, the weather station of Catenanuova (EN) recorded a maximum
temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F). The official European record – measured
by minimum/maximum thermometers – is held by Athens, Greece, which reported a maximum
of 48.0 °C (118 °F) in 1977. Total precipitation is highly variable, generally
increasing with elevation. In general, the southern and southeast coast
receives the least rainfall (less than 50 cm (20 in)), and the northern and northeastern
highlands the most (over 100 cm (39 in)).==Flora and fauna==Sicily is an often-quoted example of man-made
deforestation, which has occurred since Roman times, when the island was turned into an
agricultural region. This gradually dried the climate, leading
to a decline in rainfall and the drying of rivers. The central and southwest provinces are practically
devoid of any forest. In Northern Sicily, there are three important
forests; near Mount Etna, in the Nebrodi Mountains and in the Bosco della Ficuzza’s Natural Reserve
near Palermo. The Nebrodi Mountains Regional Park, established
on 4 August 1993 and covering 86,000 hectares (210,000 acres), is the largest protected
natural area of Sicily; and contains the largest forest in Sicily, the Caronia. The Hundred Horse Chestnut (Castagno dei Cento
Cavalli), in Sant’Alfio, on the eastern slopes of Mount Etna, is the largest and oldest known
chestnut tree in the world at 2,000 – 4,000 years old.Sicily has a wide variety of fauna. Species include fox, least weasel, pine marten,
roe deer, wild boar, crested porcupine, hedgehog, common toad, Vipera aspis, golden eagle, peregrine
falcon, hoopoe and black-winged stilt.The Zingaro Natural Reserve is one of the best
examples of unspoiled coastal wilderness in Sicily.Surrounding waters including the Strait
of Messina are home to varieties of birds and marine life, including larger species
such as flamingos and fin whales.==History=====
Ancient tribes===The original inhabitants of Sicily were three
defined groups of the ancient peoples of Italy. The most prominent and by far the earliest
of these was the Sicani, who were said by Thucydides to have arrived from the Iberian
Peninsula (perhaps Catalonia). However, modern scholars suggest that the
Sicani may have been an Illyrian tribe instead. Important historical evidence has been discovered
in the form of cave drawings by the Sicani, dated from the end of the Pleistocene epoch
around 8000 BC. The arrival of the first humans on the island
is correlated with the extinction of the Sicilian Hippopotamus and the dwarf elephant. The Elymians, thought to be from the Aegean
Sea, were the next tribe to join the Sicanians on Sicily. Recent discoveries of dolmens on the island
(dating to the second half of the third millennium BC) seems to offer new insights into the culture
of primitive Sicily. It is well known that the Mediterranean region
went through a quite intricate prehistory, so much so that it is difficult to piece together
the muddle of different peoples who have followed each other. The impact of two influences is clear, however:
the European one coming from the Northwest, and the Mediterranean influence of a clear
eastern heritage.There is no evidence of any warring between the tribes, but the Sicanians
moved eastwards when the Elymians settled in the northwest corner of the island. The Sicels are thought to have originated
in Liguria; they arrived from mainland Italy in 1200 BC and forced the Sicanians to move
back across Sicily and settle in the middle of the island. Other minor Italic groups who settled in Sicily
were the Ausones (Aeolian Islands, Milazzo) and the Morgetes of Morgantina. Studies of genetic records reveal that peoples
from various parts of the Mediterranean Basin mixed with the ancient inhabitants of Sicily,
including Egyptians and Iberians.===Phoenician, Carthaginian, Greek and Roman
period===The Phoenician settlements in the western
part of the island predates the Greeks. From about 750 BC, the Greeks began to live
in Sicily (Σικελία – Sikelia), establishing many important settlements. The most important colony was in Syracuse;
others were located at Akragas, Selinunte, Gela, Himera and Zancle. The native Sicani and Sicel peoples were absorbed
into the Hellenic culture with relative ease, and the area became part of Magna Graecia
along with the rest of southern Italy, which the Greeks had also colonised. Sicily was very fertile, and the successful
introduction of olives and grape vines created a great deal of profitable trading. A significant part of Greek culture on the
island was that of the Greek religion, and many temples were built throughout Sicily,
including several in the Valley of the Temples at Agrigento.Politics on the island was intertwined
with that of Greece; Syracuse became desired by the Athenians who set out on the Sicilian
Expedition during the Peloponnesian War. Syracuse gained Sparta and Corinth as allies
and, as a result, the Athenian expedition was defeated. The Athenian army and ships were destroyed,
with most of the survivors being sold into slavery. Greek Syracuse controlled eastern Sicily while
Carthage controlled the West. The two cultures began to clash, leading to
the Greek-Punic wars. Greece had begun to make peace with the Roman
Republic in 262 BC, and the Romans sought to annex Sicily as their republic’s first
province. Rome attacked Carthage’s holdings in Sicily
in the First Punic War and won, making Sicily the first Roman province outside of the Italian
Peninsula by 242 BC.In the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians attempted to take back Sicily. Some of the Greek cities on the island sided
with the Carthaginians. Archimedes, who lived in Syracuse, helped
the Carthaginians, but was killed by the Romans after they invaded Syracuse in 213 BC. They failed, and Rome was even more unrelenting
in its annihilation of the invaders this time; Roman consul M. Valerian told the Roman Senate
in 210 BC that “no Carthaginian remains in Sicily”.Sicily served a level of high importance
for the Romans, as it acted as the empire’s granary. It was divided into two quaestorships, in
the form of Syracuse to the east and Lilybaeum to the west. Some attempt was made under Augustus to introduce
the Latin language to the island, but Sicily was allowed to remain largely Greek in a cultural
sense. The once prosperous and contented island went
into sharp decline when Verres became governor of Sicily. In 70 BC, noted figure Cicero condemned the
misgovernment of Verres in his oration In Verrem.The island was used as a base of power
numerous times, being occupied by slave insurgents during the First and Second Servile Wars,
and by Sextus Pompey during the Sicilian revolt. Christianity first appeared in Sicily during
the years following AD 200; between this time and AD 313, Constantine the Great finally
lifted the prohibition on Christianity, but not before a significant number of Sicilians
had become martyrs, including Agatha, Christina, Lucy, and Euplius. Christianity grew rapidly in Sicily over the
next two centuries. The period of history during which Sicily
was a Roman province lasted for around 700 years.===Germanic and Byzantine periods (440–965)
=======Germanic (440–535)====
As the Western Roman Empire was falling apart, a Germanic tribe known as the Vandals briefly
took Sicily in AD 440 under the rule of their king Geiseric but in 476 the island was returned
to Odoacer, who was ruling Italy, 476-93, in the name of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman)
Emperor. The Vandals had already invaded parts of Roman
France, Spain, and Portugal, asserting themselves as an important power in Western Europe. However, they soon lost these newly acquired
possessions to another East Germanic tribe in the form of the Goths. The Ostrogothic conquest of Sicily (and Italy
as a whole) under Theodoric the Great began in 488. The Goths were Germanic, but Theodoric sought
to revive Roman culture and government and allowed freedom of religion.====Byzantine (535–965)====
Forty-seven years later the Gothic War (535–554) began between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern
Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. Sicily was the first part of Italy to be taken
by general Belisarius, who was commissioned by Eastern Emperor Justinian I as part of
an ambitious attempt to restore the whole Roman Empire, thereby uniting the Eastern
and the Western halves. Sicily was used as a base for the Byzantines
to conquer the rest of Italy, with Naples, Rome, Milan, and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna
falling within five years. However, new Ostrogoth king Totila drove down
the Italian peninsula, plundering and conquering Sicily in 550. Totila, in turn, was defeated and killed in
the Battle of Taginae by Byzantine general Narses in 552.In 535, Emperor Justinian I
made Sicily a Byzantine province and, as in Roman times, Greek continued to be the predominate
language spoken on the island. After the advent of Islam, Sicily was invaded
by the Arab forces of Caliph Uthman in 652, but the Arabs failed to make any permanent
gains and returned to Syria after gathering some booty. Raids seeking loot continued until the mid-8th
century.Byzantine Emperor Constans II decided to move from the capital Constantinople to
Syracuse in Sicily during 660. The following year, he launched an assault
from Sicily against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which then occupied most of southern Italy. Rumors that the capital of the empire was
to be moved to Syracuse probably cost Constans his life, as he was assassinated in 668. His son Constantine IV succeeded him, a brief
usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius being quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Contemporary accounts report that the Greek
language was widely spoken on the island during this period. In 740 Emperor Leo III the Isaurian transferred
Sicily from the jurisdiction of the church of Rome to that of Constantinople, placing
the island within the eastern church.In 826 Euphemius, the Byzantine commander in Sicily
having apparently killed his wife forced a nun to marry him. Emperor Michael II caught wind of the matter
and ordered general Constantine to end the marriage and cut off Euphemius’ head. Euphemius rose up, killed Constantine, and
then occupied Syracuse; he in turn was defeated and driven out to North Africa. He offered the rule of Sicily to Ziyadat Allah,
the Aghlabid Emir of Tunisia, in return for a position as a general and a place of safety. A Muslim army was then sent to the island
consisting of Arabs, Berbers, Cretans, and Persians.The Muslim conquest of Sicily was
a see-saw affair and met with much resistance. It took over a century for Byzantine Sicily
to be conquered; the largest city, Syracuse, held out until 878 and the Greek city of Taormina
fell in 962. It was not until 965 that all of Sicily was
conquered by the Arabs. In the 11th century Byzantine armies carried
out a partial reconquest of the island under George Maniakes, but it was their Norman mercenaries
who would eventually complete the island’s reconquest at the end of the century.===Arab Period (827–1091)===The Arabs initiated land reforms, which increased
productivity and encouraged the growth of smallholdings, undermining the dominance of
the latifundia. The Arabs further improved irrigation systems. The language spoken in Sicily under Arab rule
was Siculo-Arabic and Arabic influence is still present in some Sicilian words today. Although the language is extinct in Sicily,
it has developed into what is now the Maltese language on the islands of Malta today. A description of Palermo was given by Ibn
Hawqal, an Arab merchant who visited Sicily in 950. A walled suburb, called the Al-Kasr (the palace),
is the centre of Palermo to this day, with the great Friday mosque on the site of the
later Roman cathedral. The suburb of al-Khalisa (modern Kalsa) contained
the Sultan’s palace, baths, a mosque, government offices, and a private prison. Ibn Hawqal reckoned 7,000 individual butchers
trading in 150 shops. Palermo was initially ruled by the Aghlabids;
later it was the centre of Emirate of Sicily under the nominal suzerainty of the Fatimid
Caliphate. Throughout this reign, revolts by Byzantine
Sicilians continuously occurred, especially in the east, and parts of the island were
re-occupied before being quashed. Agricultural items such as oranges, lemons,
pistachio and sugarcane were brought to Sicily. Under the Arab rule, the island was aligned
in three administrative regions, or “vals”, roughly corresponding to the three “points”
of Sicily: Val di Mazara in the west; Val Demone in the northeast; and Val di Noto in
the southeast. As dhimmis, the native Eastern Orthodox Christians
were allowed freedom of religion, but had to pay a tax, the jizya, and experienced some
limitations to actively participate in public affairs. The Emirate of Sicily began to fragment as
intra-dynastic quarrelling fractured the Muslim regime. During this time, there was also a minor Jewish
presence.===Norman Sicily (1038–1198)===In 1038, seventy years after losing their
last cities in Sicily, the Byzantines under the Greek general George Maniakes invaded
the island together with their Varangian and Norman mercenaries. Although Maniakes was killed in a Byzantine
civil war in 1043 before completing a reconquest, Normans would complete a conquest of Sicily
from the Arabs under Roger I. After taking Apulia and Calabria, Roger occupied
Messina with an army of 700 knights. In 1068, Roger was victorious at Misilmeri,
but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to most of Sicily coming
under Norman control in 1072. The Normans finished their conquest in 1091,
when they captured Noto, which was the last Arab stronghold. Roger died in 1101 and was succeeded by his
son Roger II, who was the first King of Sicily. The elder Roger was married to Adelaide, who
ruled until her son came of age in 1112.The Norman Hauteville family, who were descendants
of Vikings, came to appreciate and admire the rich and layered culture in which they
now found themselves. And they began implementing their own culture,
customs, and politics in the region. Many Normans in Sicily also adopted some of
the attributes of Muslim rulers and their Byzantine subjects in dress, language, literature,
and even in the presence of palace eunuchs and, according to some accounts, a harem. The court of Roger II became the most luminous
centre of culture in the Mediterranean, both from Europe and the Middle East, like the
multi-ethnic Caliphate of Córdoba, then only just eclipsed. This attracted scholars, scientists, poets,
artists, and artisans of all kinds. Laws were issued in the language of the community
to whom they were addressed in Norman Sicily, still with heavy Arab and Greek influence. The governance was by the rule of law, so
there was justice. Muslims, Jews, Byzantine Greeks, Lombards,
and Normans worked together to form a society that historians have said created some of
the most extraordinary buildings that the world has ever seen.===Kingdom of Sicily===Palermo continued on as the capital under
the Normans. Roger’s son Roger II of Sicily succeeded his
brother Simon of Sicily as Count of Sicily, and was ultimately able to raise the status
of the island to a kingdom in 1130, along with his other holdings, which included the
Maltese Islands and the Duchies of Apulia and Calabria. He appointed the powerful Greek George of
Antioch to be his “emir of emirs” and continued the syncretism of his father. During this period, the Kingdom of Sicily
was prosperous and politically powerful, becoming one of the wealthiest states in all of Europe—even
wealthier than the Kingdom of England.Significantly, immigrants from Northern Italy and Campania
arrived during this period. Linguistically, the island shifted from being
one third Greek- and two thirds Arabic-speaking at the time of the Norman conquest to becoming
fully Latinised. In terms of the church, it became completely
Roman Catholic; previously, it had been Eastern Orthodox under the Byzantines.===Hohenstaufen dynasty===After a century, the Norman Hauteville dynasty
died out; the last direct descendant and heir of Roger, Constance, married Emperor Henry
VI. This eventually led to the crown of Sicily
being passed on to the Hohenstaufen Dynasty, who were Germans from Swabia. The last of the Hohenstaufens, Frederick II,
the only son of Constance, was one of the greatest and most cultured men of the Middle
Ages. His mother’s will had asked Pope Innocent
III to undertake the guardianship of her son. The pope gladly accepted the role, as it allowed
him to detach Sicily from the rest of The Holy Roman Empire, thus ending the spectre
of the Papal States being surrounded. Frederick was four when, at Palermo, he was
crowned King of Sicily in 1198. Frederick received no systematic education
and was allowed to run free in the streets of Palermo. There he picked up the many languages he heard
spoken, such as Arabic and Greek, and learned some of the lore of the Jewish community. At age twelve, he dismissed Innocent’s deputy
regent and took over the government; at fifteen he married Constance of Aragon, and began
his reclamation of the imperial crown. Subsequently, due to Muslim rebellions, Frederick
II destroyed the Arab presence in Sicily, moving all the Muslims of Sicily to the city
of Lucera in Apulia between 1221 and 1226.Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy
led, in 1266, to Pope Innocent IV crowning the French prince Charles, count of Anjou
and Provence, as the king of both Sicily and Naples.===Sicily under Aragonese rule===Strong opposition to French officialdom due
to mistreatment and taxation saw the local peoples of Sicily rise up, leading in 1282
to an insurrection known as the War of the Sicilian Vespers, which eventually saw almost
the entire French population on the island killed. During the war, the Sicilians turned to Peter
III of Aragon, son-in-law of the last Hohenstaufen king, for support after being rejected by
the Pope. Peter gained control of Sicily from the French,
who, however, retained control of the Kingdom of Naples. A crusade was launched in August 1283 against
Peter III and the Kingdom of Aragon by Pope Martin IV (a pope from Île-de-France), but
it failed. The wars continued until the peace of Caltabellotta
in 1302, which saw Peter’s son Frederick III recognised as king of the Isle of Sicily,
while Charles II was recognised as the king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII. Sicily was ruled as an independent kingdom
by relatives of the kings of Aragon until 1409 and then as part of the Crown of Aragon. In October 1347, in Messina, Sicily, the Black
Death first arrived in Europe. The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in 1492
led to Ferdinand II decreeing the expulsion of all Jews from Sicily. The eastern part of the island was hit by
very destructive earthquakes in 1542 and 1693. Just a few years before the latter earthquake,
the island was struck by a ferocious plague. The earthquake in 1693 took an estimated 60,000
lives. There were revolts during the 17th century,
but these were quelled with significant force, especially the revolts of Palermo and Messina. North African slave raids discouraged settlement
along the coast until the 19th century. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 saw Sicily assigned
to the House of Savoy; however, this period of rule lasted only seven years, as it was
exchanged for the island of Sardinia with Emperor Charles VI of the Austrian Habsburg
Dynasty.While the Austrians were concerned with the War of the Polish Succession, a Bourbon
prince, Charles from Spain was able to conquer Sicily and Naples. At first Sicily was able to remain as an independent
kingdom under personal union, while the Bourbons ruled over both from Naples. However, the advent of Napoleon’s First French
Empire saw Naples taken at the Battle of Campo Tenese and Bonapartist King of Naples were
installed. Ferdinand III the Bourbon was forced to retreat
to Sicily which he was still in complete control of with the help of British naval protection.Following
this, Sicily joined the Napoleonic Wars, and subsequently the British under Lord William
Bentinck established a military and diplomatic presence on the island to protect against
a French invasion. After the wars were won, Sicily and Naples
formally merged as the Two Sicilies under the Bourbons. Major revolutionary movements occurred in
1820 and 1848 against the Bourbon government with Sicily seeking independence; the second
of which, the 1848 revolution resulted in a short period of independence for Sicily. However, in 1849 the Bourbons retook control
of the island and dominated it until 1860.===Italian unification===The Expedition of the Thousand led by Giuseppe
Garibaldi captured Sicily in 1860, as part of the Risorgimento. The conquest started at Marsala, and native
Sicilians joined him in the capture of the southern Italian peninsula. Garibaldi’s march was completed with the Siege
of Gaeta, where the final Bourbons were expelled and Garibaldi announced his dictatorship in
the name of Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia. Sicily became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia
after a referendum where more than 75% of Sicily voted in favour of the annexation on
21 October 1860 (but not everyone was allowed to vote). As a result of the Kingdom of Italy proclamation,
Sicily became part of the kingdom on 17 March 1861. The Sicilian economy (and the wider mezzogiorno
economy) remained relatively underdeveloped after the Italian unification, in spite of
the strong investments made by the Kingdom of Italy in terms of modern infrastructure,
and this caused an unprecedented wave of emigration. In 1894, organisations of workers and peasants
known as the Fasci Siciliani protested against the bad social and economic conditions of
the island, but they were suppressed in a few days. The Messina earthquake of 28 December 1908
killed more than 80,000 people. This period was also characterised by the
first contact between the Sicilian mafia (the crime syndicate also known as Cosa Nostra)
and the Italian government. The Mafia’s origins are still uncertain, but
it is generally accepted that it emerged in the 18th century initially in the role of
private enforcers hired to protect the property of landowners and merchants from the groups
of bandits (briganti) who frequently pillaged the countryside and towns. The battle against the Mafia made by the Kingdom
of Italy was controversial and ambiguous. The Carabinieri (the military police of Italy)
and sometimes the Italian army were often involved in terrible fights against the mafia
members, but their efforts were frequently useless because of the secret co-operation
between mafia and local government and also because of the weakness of the Italian judicial
system.===20th and 21st centuries===In the 1920s, the Fascist regime began a stronger
military action against the Mafia, which was led by prefect Cesare Mori who was known as
the “Iron Prefect” because of his iron-fisted campaigns. This was the first time in which an operation
against the Sicilian mafia ended with considerable success. There was an allied invasion of Sicily during
World War II starting on 10 July 1943. In preparation for the invasion, the Allies
revitalized the Mafia to aid them. The invasion of Sicily contributed to the
25 July crisis; in general, the Allied victors were warmly embraced by Sicily.Italy became
a Republic in 1946 and, as part of the Constitution of Italy, Sicily was one of the five regions
given special status as an autonomous region. Both the partial Italian land reform and special
funding from the Italian government’s Cassa per il Mezzogiorno (Fund for the South) from
1950 to 1984 helped the Sicilian economy. During this period, the economic and social
condition of the island was generally improved thanks to important investments on infrastructures
such as motorways and airports, and thanks to the creation of important industrial and
commercial areas. In the 1980s, the Mafia was deeply weakened
by a second important campaign led by magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Between 1990 and 2005, the unemployment rate
fell from about 23% to 11%.==Demographics==Sicily is a melting pot of a variety of different
cultures and ethnicities, including the original Italic people, the Phoenicians, Carthaginians,
Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans, Swabians, Aragonese, Lombards, Spaniards,
French, and Albanians, each contributing to the island’s culture and genetic makeup. About five million people live in Sicily,
making it the fourth most populated region in Italy. In the first century after the Italian unification,
Sicily had one of the most negative net migration rates among the regions of Italy because of
the emigration of millions of people to other European countries, North America, South America
and Australia. Like the South of Italy and Sardinia, immigration
to the island is very low compared to other regions of Italy because workers tend to head
to Northern Italy instead, due to better employment and industrial opportunities. The most recent ISTAT figures show around
175,000 immigrants out of the total of almost 5.1 million population (nearly 3.5% of the
population); Romanians with more than 50,000 make up the most immigrants, followed by Tunisians,
Moroccans, Sri Lankans, Albanians, and others mostly from Eastern Europe. As in the rest of Italy, the official language
is Italian and the primary religion is Roman Catholicism.===Emigration===The modern history of the island has been
strongly marked by emigration. After Italian unification, Sicily failed to
participate in continued industrial development and, together with the rest of southern Italy,
remained an economically depressed and agricultural society. Consequently, the island became a major labor
reserve for northern Italy and for such developed countries as the United States, Argentina,
Germany, France, and Belgium. Sicily is the Italian region with the highest
number of expatriates: as of 2017, 750,000 Sicilians, 14.4% of the island’s population,
lived abroad. For lack of employment, every year many Sicilians,
especially young graduates, still leave the island to seek jobs in richer Italian regions
or in foreign lands.==Politics==The politics of Sicily takes place in a framework
of a presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government
is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional
Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government
and the Sicilian Regional Assembly. The capital of Sicily is Palermo. Traditionally, Sicily gives centre-right results
during election. From 1943 to 1951 there was also a separatist
political party called Sicilian Independence Movement (Movimento Indipendentista Siciliano,
MIS). Its best electoral result was in the 1946
general election, when MIS obtained 0.7% of national votes (8.8% of votes in Sicily),
and four seats. However, the movement lost all its seats following
the 1948 general election and the 1951 regional election. Even though it has never been formally disbanded,
today the movement is no longer part of the politics of Sicily. After World War II Sicily became a stronghold
of the Christian Democracy, in opposition to the Italian Communist Party. The Communists and their successors (the Democratic
Party of the Left, the Democrats of the Left and the present-day Democratic Party) had
never won in the region until 2012. Sicily is now governed by a centre-right coalition. Nello Musumeci is the current President since
2017.===Administrative divisions===Administratively, Sicily is divided into nine
provinces, each with a capital city of the same name as the province. Small surrounding islands are also part of
various Sicilian provinces: the Aeolian Islands (Messina), isle of Ustica (Palermo), Aegadian
Islands (Trapani), isle of Pantelleria (Trapani) and Pelagian Islands (Agrigento).==Economy==Thanks to the regular growth of the last years,
Sicily is the eighth largest regional economy of Italy in terms of total GDP (see List of
Italian regions by GDP). A series of reforms and investments on agriculture
such as the introduction of modern irrigation systems have made this important industry
competitive. In the 1970s there was a growth of the industrial
sector through the creation of some factories. In recent years the importance of the service
industry has grown for the opening of several shopping malls and for a modest growth of
financial and telecommunication activities. Tourism is an important source of wealth for
the island thanks to its natural and historical heritage. Today Sicily is investing a large amount of
money on structures of the hospitality industry, in order to make tourism more competitive. However, Sicily continues to have a GDP per
capita below the Italian average and higher unemployment than the rest of Italy. This difference is mostly caused by the negative
influence of the Mafia that is still active in some areas although it is much weaker than
in the past.===Agriculture===Sicily has long been noted for its fertile
soil due to volcanic eruptions. The local agriculture is also helped by the
pleasant climate of the island. The main agricultural products are wheat,
citrons, oranges (Arancia Rossa di Sicilia IGP), lemons, tomatoes (Pomodoro di Pachino
IGP), olives, olive oil, artichokes, Opuntia ficus-indica (Fico d’India dell’Etna DOP),
almonds, grapes, pistachios (Pistacchio di Bronte DOP) and wine. Cattle and sheep are raised. The cheese productions are particularly important
thanks to the Ragusano DOP and the Pecorino Siciliano DOP. Ragusa is noted for its honey (Miele Ibleo)
and chocolate (Cioccolato di Modica IGP) productions.Sicily is the third largest wine producer in Italy
(the world’s largest wine producer) after Veneto and Emilia Romagna. The region is known mainly for fortified Marsala
wines. In recent decades the wine industry has improved,
new winemakers are experimenting with less-known native varietals, and Sicilian wines have
become better known. The best known local varietal is Nero d’Avola,
named for a small town not far from Syracuse; the best wines made with these grapes come
from Noto, a famous old city close to Avola. Other important native varietals are Nerello
Mascalese used to make the Etna Rosso DOC wine, Frappato that is a component of the
Cerasuolo di Vittoria DOCG wine, Moscato di Pantelleria (also known as Zibibbo) used to
make different Pantelleria wines, Malvasia di Lipari used for the Malvasia di Lipari
DOC wine and Catarratto mostly used to make the white wine Alcamo DOC. Furthermore, in Sicily high quality wines
are also produced using non-native varietals like Syrah, Chardonnay and Merlot.Sicily is
also known for its liqueurs, such as the Amaro Averna produced in Caltanissetta and the local
limoncello. Fishing is another fundamental resource for
Sicily. There are important tuna, sardine, swordfish
and European anchovy fisheries. Mazzara del Vallo is the largest fishing centre
in Sicily and one of the most important in Italy.===Industry and manufacturing===Improvements in Sicily’s road system have
helped to promote industrial development. The region has three important industrial
districts: Catania Industrial District, where there are
several food industries and one of the best European electronics industry centres called
Etna Valley (in honour of the best known Silicon Valley) which contains offices and factories
of international companies such as STMicroelectronics and Numonyx;
Syracuse Petrochemical District with chemical industries, oil refineries and important power
stations (as the innovative Archimede combined cycle power plant);
the latest Enna Industrial District in which there are food industries.In Palermo there
are important shipyards (such as Fincantieri), mechanical factories of famous Italian companies
as Ansaldo Breda, publishing and textile industries. Chemical industries are also in the Province
of Messina (Milazzo) and in the Province of Caltanissetta (Gela). There are petroleum, natural gas and asphalt
fields in the Southeast (mostly near Ragusa) and massive deposits of halite in Central
Sicily. The Province of Trapani is one of the largest
sea salt producers in Italy.===Statistics=======GDP growth====
A table showing Sicily’s different GDP (nominal and per capita) growth between 2000 and 2008:====Economic sectors====
After the table which shows Sicily’s GDP growth, this table shows the sectors of the Sicilian
economy in 2006:====Unemployment rate====
The unemployment rate stood at 21.5% in 2017 and was one of the highest in Italy and Europe.==Transport=====
Roads===Highways have recently been built and expanded
in the last four decades. The most prominent Sicilian roads are the
motorways (known as autostrada) running through the northern section of the island. Much of the motorway network is elevated by
columns due to the mountainous terrain of the island. Other main roads in Sicily are the Strade
Statali like the SS.113 that connects Trapani to Messina (via Palermo), the SS.114 Messina-Syracuse
(via Catania) and the SS.115 Syracuse-Trapani (via Ragusa, Gela and Agrigento).===Railways===The first railway in Sicily was opened in
1863 (Palermo-Bagheria) and today all of the Sicilian provinces are served by a network
of railway services, linking to most major cities and towns; this service is operated
by Trenitalia. Of the 1,378 km (856 mi) of railway tracks
in use, over 60% has been electrified whilst the remaining 583 km (362 mi) are serviced
by diesel engines. 88% of the lines (1.209 km) are single-track
and only 169 km (105 mi) are double-track serving the two main routes, Messina-Palermo
(Tyrrhenian) and Messina-Catania-Syracuse (Ionian). Of the narrow-gauge railways the Ferrovia
Circumetnea is the only one that still operates, going round Mount Etna. From the major cities of Sicily, there are
services to Naples and Rome; this is achieved by the trains being loaded onto ferries which
cross to the mainland.In Catania there is an underground railway service (metropolitana
di Catania); in Palermo the national railway operator Trenitalia operates a commuter rail
(Palermo metropolitan railway service), the Sicilian Capital is also served by 4 AMAT
(Comunal Public Transport Operator) tramlines; Messina is served by a tramline.===Airports===Mainland Sicily has several airports which
serve numerous Italian and European destinations and some extra-European. Catania-Fontanarossa Airport, located on the
east coast, is the busiest on the island (and one of the busiest in all of Italy). Palermo International Airport, which is also
a substantially large airport with many national and international flights. Trapani-Birgi Airport, a military-civil joint
use airport (third for traffic on the island). Recently the airport has seen an increase
of traffic thanks to a low-cost carrier. Comiso-Ragusa Airport, has recently been refurbished
and re-converted from military use to a civil airport. It was opened to commercial traffic and general
aviation 30 May 2013. Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport is the old airport
of Palermo and is currently used for general aviation and as a base for the Guardia di
Finanza and police helicopters. NAS Sigonella Airport, it is an Italian Air
Force and US Navy installation. Lampedusa Airport. Pantelleria Airport.===Ports===By sea, Sicily is served by several ferry
routes and cargo ports, and in all major cities, cruise ships dock on a regular basis. Mainland Italy: Ports connecting to the mainland
are Messina (route to Villa San Giovanni and Salerno), the busiest passenger port in Italy,
Palermo (routes to Genoa, Civitavecchia and Naples) and Catania (route to Naples). Sicily’s small surrounding islands: The port
of Milazzo serves the Aeolian Islands, the ports of Trapani and Marsala the Aegadian
Islands and the port of Porto Empedocle the Pelagie Islands. From Palermo there is a service to the island
of Ustica and to Sardinia. International connections: From Palermo and
Trapani there are weekly services to Tunisia and there is also a daily service between
Malta and Pozzallo. Commercial and cargo ports: The port of Augusta
is the fifth-largest cargo port in Italy and handles tonnes of goods. Other major cargo ports are Palermo, Catania,
Trapani, Pozzallo and Termini Imerese. Touristic ports: Several ports along the Sicilian
coast are in the service of private boats that need to moor on the island. The main ports for this traffic are in Marina
di Ragusa, Riposto, Portorosa, Syracuse, Cefalù and Sciacca. In Sicily, Palermo is also a major centre
for boat rental, with or without crew, in the Mediterranean. Fishing ports: Like all islands, Sicily also
has many fishing ports. The most important is in Mazara del Vallo
followed by Castellamare del Golfo, Licata, Scoglitti and Portopalo di Capo Passero.===Planned bridge===Plans for a bridge linking Sicily to the mainland
have been discussed since 1865. Throughout the last decade, plans were developed
for a road and rail link to the mainland via what would be the world’s longest suspension
bridge, the Strait of Messina Bridge. Planning for the project has experienced several
false starts over the past few years. On 6 March 2009, Silvio Berlusconi’s government
declared that the construction works for the Messina Bridge will begin on 23 December 2009,
and announced a pledge of €1.3 billion as a contribution to the bridge’s total cost,
estimated at €6.1 billion. The plan has been criticised by environmental
associations and some local Sicilians and Calabrians, concerned with its environmental
impact, economical sustainability and even possible infiltrations by organised crime.==Tourism==Sicily’s sunny, dry climate, scenery, cuisine,
history and architecture attract many tourists from mainland Italy and abroad. The tourist season peaks in the summer months,
although people visit the island all year round. Mount Etna, the beaches, the archaeological
sites, and major cities such as Palermo, Catania, Syracuse and Ragusa are the favourite tourist
destinations, but the old town of Taormina and the neighbouring seaside resort of Giardini
Naxos draw visitors from all over the world, as do the Aeolian Islands, Erice, Castellammare
del Golfo, Cefalù, Agrigento, the Pelagie Islands and Capo d’Orlando. The last features some of the best-preserved
temples of the ancient Greek period. Many Mediterranean cruise ships stop in Sicily,
and many wine tourists also visit the island. Some scenes of famous Hollywood and Cinecittà
films were shot in Sicily. This increased the attraction of Sicily as
a tourist destination.===UNESCO World Heritage Sites===There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites
on Sicily. By the order of inscription: Valle dei Templi (1997) is one of the most
outstanding examples of Greater Greece art and architecture, and is one of the main attractions
of Sicily as well as a national monument of Italy. The site is located in Agrigento. Villa Romana del Casale (1997) is a Roman
villa built in the first quarter of the 4th century and located about 3 km (2 mi) outside
the town of Piazza Armerina. It contains the richest, largest and most
complex collection of Roman mosaics in the world. Aeolian Islands (2000) are a volcanic archipelago
in the Tyrrhenian Sea, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist
destination in the summer, and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually. Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (2002)
“represent the culmination and final flowering of Baroque art in Europe”. It includes several towns: Caltagirone, Militello
in Val di Catania, Catania, Modica, Noto, Palazzolo Acreide, Ragusa and Scicli. Necropolis of Pantalica (2005) is a large
necropolis in Sicily with over 5,000 tombs dating from the 13th to the 7th centuries
BC. Syracuse is notable for its rich Greek history,
culture, amphitheatres and architecture. They are situated in south-eastern Sicily. Mount Etna (2013) is one of the most active
volcanoes in the world and is in an almost constant state of activity and generated myths,
legends and naturalistic observation from Greek, Celts and Roman classic and medieval
times. Arab-Norman Palermo and the cathedral churches
of Cefalù and Monreale; includes a series of nine civil and religious structures dating
from the era of the Norman kingdom of Sicily (1130–1194)====Tentative Sites====Taormina and Isola Bella;
Motya and Libeo Island: The Phoenician-Punic Civilisation in Italy;
Scala dei Turchi; Strait of Messina.===Archeological sites===
Because many different cultures settled, dominated or invaded the island, Sicily has a huge variety
of archaeological sites. Also, some of the most notable and best preserved
temples and other structures of the Greek world are located in Sicily.. Here is a short list of the major archaeological
sites: Sicels/Sicans/Elymians/Greeks: Segesta, Eryx,
Cava Ispica, Thapsos, Pantalica; Greeks: Syracuse, Agrigento, Segesta, Selinunte,
Gela, Kamarina, Himera, Megara Hyblaea, Naxos, Heraclea Minoa;
Phoenicians: Motya, Soluntum, Marsala, Palermo; Romans: Piazza Armerina, Centuripe, Taormina,
Palermo; Arabs: Palermo, Mazara del Vallo.The excavation
and restoration of one of Sicily’s best known archaeological sites, the Valley of the Temples
in Agrigento, was at the direction of the archaeologist Domenico Antonio Lo Faso Pietrasanta,
Fifth Duke of Serradifalco, known in archaeological circles simply as “Serradifalco”. He also oversaw the restoration of ancient
sites at Segesta, Selinunte, Siracusa and Taormina.===Castles===
In Sicily there are hundreds of castles, the most relevant are:===Coastal towers===
The Coastal towers in Sicily (Torri costiere della Sicilia) are 218 old watchtowers along
the coast. In Sicily, the first coastal towers date back
to 1313 and 1345 of the Aragonese monarchy. From 1360 the threat came from the south,
from North Africa to Maghreb, mainly to Barbary pirates and corsairs of Barbary Coast. In 1516, the Turks settled in Algiers, and
from 1520, the corsair Hayreddin Barbarossa under the command of Ottoman Empire, operated
from that harbour. Most existing towers were built on architectural
designs of the Florentine architect Camillo Camilliani from [1583] to 1584, and involved
the coastal periple of Sicily. The typology changed completely in ‘800, because
of the new higher fire volumes of cannon vessels, the towers were built on the type of Martello
towers that the British built in the UK and elsewhere in the British Empire. In 1805 the U.S. Marines and Navy, in the
Battle of Derne, near Tripoli. destroy all of the Barbary pirates, and to
put an end to piracy acts.==Culture==To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily
is to not have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything. Sicily has long been associated with the arts;
many poets, writers, philosophers, intellectuals, architects and painters have roots on the
island. The history of prestige in this field can
be traced back to Greek philosopher Archimedes, a Syracuse native who has gone on to become
renowned as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Gorgias and Empedocles are two other highly
noted early Sicilian-Greek philosophers, while the Syracusan Epicharmus is held to be the
inventor of comedy.===Art and architecture===Terracotta ceramics from the island are well
known, the art of ceramics on Sicily goes back to the original ancient peoples named
the Sicanians, it was then perfected during the period of Greek colonisation and is still
prominent and distinct to this day. Nowadays, Caltagirone is one of the most important
centres in Sicily for the artistic production of ceramics and terra-cotta sculptures. Famous painters include Renaissance artist
Antonello da Messina, Renato Guttuso and Greek born Giorgio de Chirico who is commonly dubbed
the “father of Surrealist art” and founder of the metaphysical art movement. The most noted architects are Filippo Juvarra
(one of the most important figures of the Italian Baroque) and Ernesto Basile.====Sicilian Baroque====The Sicilian Baroque has a unique architectural
identity. Noto, Caltagirone, Catania, Ragusa, Modica,
Scicli and particularly Acireale contain some of Italy’s best examples of Baroque architecture,
carved in the local red sandstone. Noto provides one of the best examples of
the Baroque architecture brought to Sicily. The Baroque style in Sicily was largely confined
to buildings erected by the church, and palazzi built as private residences for the Sicilian
aristocracy. The earliest examples of this style in Sicily
lacked individuality and were typically heavy-handed pastiches of buildings seen by Sicilian visitors
to Rome, Florence, and Naples. However, even at this early stage, provincial
architects had begun to incorporate certain vernacular features of Sicily’s older architecture. By the middle of the 18th century, when Sicily’s
Baroque architecture was noticeably different from that of the mainland, it typically included
at least two or three of the following features, coupled with a unique freedom of design that
is more difficult to characterise in words.===Music and film===Palermo hosts the Teatro Massimo which is
the largest opera house in Italy and the third largest in all of Europe. In Catania there is another important opera
house, the Teatro Massimo Bellini with 1,200 seats, which is considered one of the best
European opera houses for its acoustics. Sicily’s composers vary from Vincenzo Bellini,
Sigismondo d’India, Giovanni Pacini and Alessandro Scarlatti, to contemporary composers such
as Salvatore Sciarrino and Silvio Amato. Many award-winning and acclaimed films of
Italian cinema have been filmed in Sicily, amongst the most noted of which are: Visconti’s
“La Terra Trema” and “Il Gattopardo”, Pietro Germi’s “Divorzio all’Italiana” and “Sedotta
e Abbandonata”.===Literature===The golden age of Sicilian poetry began in
the early 13th century with the Sicilian School of Giacomo da Lentini, which was highly influential
on Italian literature. Some of the most noted figures among writers
and poets are Luigi Pirandello (Nobel laureate, 1934), Salvatore Quasimodo (Nobel laureate,
1959), Giovanni Verga (the father of the Italian Verismo), Domenico Tempio, Giovanni Meli,
Luigi Capuana, Mario Rapisardi, Federico de Roberto, Leonardo Sciascia, Vitaliano Brancati,
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, Elio Vittorini, Vincenzo Consolo and Andrea Camilleri (noted
for his novels and short stories with the fictional character Inspector Salvo Montalbano
as protagonist). On the political side notable philosophers
include Gaetano Mosca and Giovanni Gentile who wrote The Doctrine of Fascism. In terms of academic reflection, the historical
and aesthetic richness as well as the multi-layered heterogeneity of Sicilian literature and culture
have been first grasped methodologically and coined with the term of transculturality by
German scholar of Italian Studies Dagmar Reichardt who, after having published an extensive study
on the literary work of Giuseppe Bonaviri, was awarded the International Premio Flaiano
(“Italianistica”) for a trilingual (English, Italian, German) collection about the European
liminality of Sicily, Sicilian literature and Sicilian Studies.===Language===Today in Sicily most people are bilingual
and speak both Italian and Sicilian, a distinct and historical Romance language. Some of the Sicilian words are loan words
from Greek, Catalan, French, Arabic, Spanish and other languages. Dialects related to Sicilian are also spoken
in Calabria and Salento; it had a significant influence on the Maltese language. However the use of Sicilian is limited to
informal contexts (mostly in family) and in a majority of cases it is replaced by the
so-called regional Italian of Sicily, an Italian dialect that is a kind of mix between Italian
and Sicilian.Sicilian was an early influence in the development of the first Italian standard,
although its use remained confined to an intellectual elite. This was a literary language in Sicily created
under the auspices of Frederick II and his court of notaries, or Magna Curia, which,
headed by Giacomo da Lentini, also gave birth to the Sicilian School, widely inspired by
troubadour literature. Its linguistic and poetic heritage was later
assimilated into the Florentine by Dante Alighieri, the father of modern Italian who, in his De
vulgari eloquentia, claims that “In effect this vernacular seems to deserve a higher
praise than the others, since all the poetry written by Italians can be called Sicilian”. It is in this language that appeared the first
sonnet, whose invention is attributed to Giacomo da Lentini himself.===Science===
Catania has one of the four laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
(National Institute for Nuclear Physics) in which there is a cyclotron that uses protons
both for nuclear physics experiments and for particle therapy to treat cancer (proton therapy). Noto has one of the largest radio telescopes
in Italy that performs geodetic and astronomical observations. There are observatories in Palermo and Catania,
managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (National Institute for Astrophysics). In the Observatory of Palermo the astronomer
Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the first and the largest asteroid to be identified Ceres (today
considered a dwarf planet) on 1 January 1801; Catania has two observatories, one of which
is situated on Mount Etna at 1,800 metres (5,900 feet).Syracuse is also an experimental
centre for the solar technologies through the creation of the project Archimede solar
power plant that is the first concentrated solar power plant to use molten salt for heat
transfer and storage which is integrated with a combined-cycle gas facility. All the plant is owned and operated by Enel. The touristic town of Erice is also an important
science place thanks to the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture
which embraces 123 schools from all over the world,
covering all branches of science, offering courses, seminars, workshops and annual meetings. It was founded by the physicist Antonino Zichichi
in honour of another scientist of the island, Ettore Majorana known for the Majorana equation
and Majorana fermions. Sicily’s famous scientists include also Stanislao
Cannizzaro (chemist), Giovanni Battista Hodierna and Niccolò Cacciatore (astronomers).===Education===
Sicily has four universities: The University of Catania dates back to 1434
and it is the oldest university in Sicily. Nowadays it hosts 12 faculties and over 62,000
students and it offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs. Catania hosts also the Scuola Superiore, an
academic institution linked to the University of Catania, aiming for excellence in education. The University of Palermo is the island’s
second oldest university. It was officially founded in 1806, although
historical records indicate that medicine and law have been taught there since the late
15th century. The Orto botanico di Palermo (Palermo botanical
gardens) is home to the university’s Department of Botany and is also open to visitors. The University of Messina, founded in 1548
by Ignatius of Loyola. It is organised in 11 Faculties. The Kore University of Enna founded in 1995,
it is the latest Sicilian university and the first university founded in Sicily after the
Italian Unification.===Religion===As in most Italian regions, Christian Roman
Catholicism is the most predominant religious denomination in Sicily, and the church still
plays an important role in the lives of most people. Before the invasion of the Normans, Sicily
was predominantly Eastern Orthodox, of which few adherents still remain today. There is also a notable small minority of
Eastern-rite Byzantine Catholics which has a mixed congregation of ethnic Albanians;
it is operated by the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church. Most people still attend church weekly or
at least for religious festivals, and many people get married in churches. There was a wide presence of Jews in Sicily
for at least 1,400 years and possibly for more than 2,000 years. Some scholars believe that the Sicilian Jewry
are partial ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews. However, much of the Jewish community faded
away when they were expelled from the island in 1492. Islam was present during the Emirate of Sicily,
although Muslims were also expelled. Today, mostly due to immigration to the island,
there are also several religious minorities, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, Islam, Judaism,
and Sikhism. There are also a fair number of Evangelical
Church members and practitioners who live on the island.===Cuisine===The island has a long history of producing
a variety of noted cuisines and wines, to the extent that Sicily is sometimes nicknamed
God’s Kitchen because of this. Every part of Sicily has its speciality (e.g.
Cassata is typical of Palermo although available everywhere in Sicily, as is Granita, a Catania
speciality). The ingredients are typically rich in taste
while remaining affordable to the general public. The savoury dishes of Sicily are viewed to
be healthy, using fresh vegetables and fruits, such as tomatoes, artichokes, olives (including
olive oil), citrus, apricots, aubergines, onions, beans, raisins commonly coupled with
seafood, freshly caught from the surrounding coastlines, including tuna, sea bream, sea
bass, cuttlefish, swordfish, sardines, and others. The most well-known part of Sicilian cuisine
is the rich sweet dishes including ice creams and pastries. Cannoli (singular: cannolo), a tube-shaped
shell of fried pastry dough filled with a sweet filling usually containing ricotta cheese,
is strongly associated with Sicily worldwide. Biancomangiare, biscotti ennesi (cookies native
to Enna), braccilatte (a Sicilian version of doughnuts), buccellato, ciarduna, pignoli,
Biscotti Regina, giurgiulena, frutta martorana, cassata, pignolata, granita, cuccidati (a
variety of fig cookie; also known as buccellati) and cuccìa are some notable sweet dishes.Like
the cuisine of the rest of southern Italy, pasta plays an important part in Sicilian
cuisine, as does rice; for example with arancine. As well as using some other cheeses, Sicily
has spawned some of its own, using both cow’s and sheep’s milk, such as pecorino and caciocavallo. Spices used include saffron, nutmeg, clove,
pepper, and cinnamon, which were introduced by the Arabs. Parsley is used abundantly in many dishes. Although Sicilian cuisine is commonly associated
with sea food, meat dishes, including goose, lamb, goat, rabbit, and turkey, are also found
in Sicily. It was the Normans and Swabians who first
introduced a fondness for meat dishes to the island. Some varieties of wine are produced from vines
that are relatively unique to the island, such as the Nero d’Avola made near the baroque
of town of Noto.===Sports===The most popular sport in Sicily is football,
which came to the fore in the late 19th century under the influence of the English. Some of the oldest football clubs in Italy
are from Sicily: the three most successful are Palermo, Catania, and Messina, which have
played 29, 17 and 5 seasons in the Serie A respectively. No club from Sicily has ever won Serie A,
but football is still deeply embedded in local culture and all over Sicily most towns have
a representative team.Palermo and Catania have a heated rivalry and compete in the Sicilian
derby together. Palermo is the only team in Sicily to have
played on the European stage, in the UEFA Cup. In the island, the most noted footballer is
Salvatore Schillaci, who won the Golden Boot at the 1990 FIFA World Cup with Italy. Other noted players include Giuseppe Furino,
Pietro Anastasi, Francesco Coco, Christian Riganò, and Roberto Galia. There have also been some noted managers from
the island, such as Carmelo Di Bella and Franco Scoglio. Although football is the most popular sport
in Sicily, the island also has participants in other fields. Amatori Catania have competed in the top Italian
national rugby union league called National Championship of Excellence. They have even participated at European level
in the European Challenge Cup. Competing in the basketball variation of Serie
A is Orlandina Basket from Capo d’Orlando in the province of Messina, where the sport
has a reasonable following. Various other sports that are played to some
extent include volleyball, handball, and water polo. Previously, in motorsport, Sicily held the
prominent Targa Florio sports car race that took place in the Madonie Mountains, with
the start-finish line in Cerda. The event was started in 1906 by Sicilian
industrialist and automobile enthusiast Vincenzo Florio, and ran until it was cancelled due
to safety concerns in 1977.From 28 September to 9 October 2005 Trapani was the location
of Acts 8 and 9 of the Louis Vuitton Cup. This sailing race featured, among other entrants,
all boats that took part in the 2007 America’s Cup.===Popular culture===Each town and city has its own patron saint,
and the feast days are marked by colourful processions through the streets with marching
bands and displays of fireworks. Sicilian religious festivals also include
the presepe vivente (living nativity scene), which takes place at Christmas time. Deftly combining religion and folklore, it
is a constructed mock 19th century Sicilian village, complete with a nativity scene, and
has people of all ages dressed in the costumes of the period, some impersonating the Holy
Family, and others working as artisans of their particular assigned trade. It is normally concluded on Epiphany, often
highlighted by the arrival of the magi on horseback. Oral tradition plays a large role in Sicilian
folklore. Many stories passed down from generation to
generation involve a character named “Giufà”. Anecdotes from this character’s life preserve
Sicilian culture as well as convey moral messages. Sicilians also enjoy outdoor festivals, held
in the local square or piazza where live music and dancing are performed on stage, and food
fairs or sagre are set up in booths lining the square. These offer various local specialties, as
well as typical Sicilian food. Normally these events are concluded with fireworks. A noted sagra is the Sagra del Carciofo or
Artichoke Festival, which is held annually in Ramacca in April. The most important traditional event in Sicily
is the carnival. Famous carnivals are in Acireale, Misterbianco,
Regalbuto, Paternò, Sciacca, Termini Imerese. The Opera dei Pupi (Opera of the Puppets;
Sicilian: Òpira dî pupi) is a marionette theatrical representation of Frankish romantic
poems such as the Song of Roland or Orlando furioso that is one of the characteristic
cultural traditions of Sicily. The sides of donkey carts are decorated with
intricate, painted scenes; these same tales are enacted in traditional puppet theatres
featuring hand-made marionettes of wood. The opera of the puppets and the Sicilian
tradition of cantastorî (singers of tales) are rooted in the Provençal troubadour tradition
in Sicily during the reign of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in the first half of the
13th century. A great place to see this marionette art is
the puppet theatres of Palermo. The Sicilian marionette theatre Opera dei
Pupi was proclaimed in 2001 and inscribed in 2008 in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural
Heritage Lists.Today, there are only a few troupes that maintain the tradition. They often perform for tourists. However, there are no longer the great historical
families of marionettists, such as the Greco of Palermo; the Canino of Partinico and Alcamo;
Crimi, Trombetta and Napoli of Catania, Pennisi and Macri of Acireale, Profeta of Licata,
Gargano and Grasso of Agrigento. One can, however, admire the richest collection
of marionettes at the Museo Internazionale delle Marionette Antonio Pasqualino and at
the Museo Etnografico Siciliano Giuseppe Pitré in Palermo. Other beautiful marionettes are on display
at the Museo Civico Vagliasindi in Randazzo.===Regional symbols===
There are several cultural icons and regional symbols in Sicily, including flags, carts,
sights and geographical features. The Flag of Sicily, regarded as a regional
icon, was first adopted in 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers of Palermo. It is characterised by the presence of the
trinacria (triskelion) in its middle, the (winged) head of Medusa and three wheat ears. The three bent legs are supposed to represent
the three points of the island Sicily itself. The colours, instead, respectively represent
the cities of Palermo and Corleone, at those times an agricultural city of renown. Palermo and Corleone were the first two cities
to found a confederation against the Angevin rule. It finally became the official public flag
of the Regione Siciliana in January 2000, after the passing of an apposite regional
law which advocates its use on public buildings, schools and city halls along with the national
Italian flag and the European one. Familiar as an ancient symbol of the region,
the Triskelion is also featured on Greek coins of Syracuse, such as coins of Agathocles (317–289
BC).The symbol dates back to when Sicily was part of Magna Graecia, the colonial extension
of Greece beyond the Aegean. The triskelion was revived, as a neoclassic
– and non-Bourbon – emblem for the new Napoleonic Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, by
Joachim Murat in 1808. Pliny the Elder attributes the origin of the
triskelion of Sicily to the triangular form of the island, the ancient Trinacria, which
consists of three large capes equidistant from each other, pointing in their respective
directions, the names of which were Pelorus, Pachynus, and Lilybæum. The three legs of the triskelion are also
reminiscent of Hephaestus’s three-legged tables that ran by themselves, as mentioned in Iliad
xviii. The Sicilian cart is an ornate, colourful
style of horse or donkey-drawn cart native to Sicily. Sicilian wood carver George Petralia states
that horses were mostly used in the city and flat plains, while donkeys or mules were more
often used in rough terrain for hauling heavy loads. The cart has two wheels and is primarily handmade
out of wood with iron components. The Sicilian coppola is a traditional kind
of flat cap typically worn by men in Sicily. First used by English nobles during the late
18th century, the tascu began being used in Sicily in the early 20th century as a driving
cap, usually worn by car drivers. The coppola is usually made in tweed. Today it is widely regarded as a definitive
symbol of Sicilian heritage.==Notable people====
See also==List of islands of Italy

David Frank

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